Tuesday, June 10, 2008

Natural dye

Natural dye, as we knew, many crop kinds and the animal that had beautiful and sparkling colours.
The use of the pigment that came from the crop and this animal has for a long time been carried out by our predecessors, for example the pandanus leaves, the leaves embroidered, turmeric et cetera.
Chlorophyll was the natural pigment green that generally is met to the leaves, so as often was acknowledged as the chlorophyll pigment.
This pigment often was asosiationed with the freshness of vegetables or did not yet cook to the fruit.
Gotten by 2 chlorophyll kinds that succeeded in being isolated that is chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B.
Both of them were met to the crop with the comparison 3 :1.
Chlorophyll A including in the pigment that was mentioned porfirin; haemoglobin also including inside. Clorophil a contained the atom Mg that was tied with N from 2 rings pirol with the covalent association as well as by two N atoms from two rings other pirol via the association of the co-ordinate; that is N from pirol that contributed his electron couple in Mg.
In the process of the processing of food, the most general change happened was the replacement of the magnesium atom with the hydrogen atom that formed feofitin was marked by the change in the colour from green became brown olive that was gloomy.
Mioglobin and haemoglobin were the red pigment to meat that was compiled by protein globin and heme that had the core took the form of iron.
Heme was the compound that consisted of two parts that is the iron atom and a ring plana that was big that is porfirin.
Porfirin was compiled by four rings pirol that was connected one in an other manner with meten bridge.
Heme was also mentioned feroprotoporfirin.
Both haemoglobin and mioglobin had the function that was similar that is functioning in transfor oxygen for the need of metabolism.
Karotenoid was the coloured pigment group yellow, oranye, red oranye that was most protracted in lipida (oil), came from the animal and the crop, for example fukoxanthin that was met in moss, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin was gotten to the foliage, likopen to tomatoes, kapsanthin to the red chilli, biksin in annatto, caroten to carrots, and astazanthin to the lobster.
Anthosianin and anthoxanthin was classified as the pigment that was mentioned flavonoid that generally protracted in water.
Anthosianin was compiled by one aglikon that take the form of anthosianidin that teresterifikasi with the sugar molecule that could one or more.
Sugar that often was found was glucose, ramnosa, galaktosa, xilosa and arabinosa.
Anthosianin that contained one sugar molecule was mentioned monosida, two sugars were mentioned diosida and three sugars were mentioned triosida.
Gotten by six kinds anthosianidin that often was met in the wild, that was important for food that is pelargonidin, sianidin, delfinidin, peonidin, petunidin and malvinidin.
All anthosianidin was derivative from the structure of the foundation kation flavilium.
To the molecule flavilium happened subsitusi with the molecule OH and Ome to form anthosianidin.
The colour of the pigment anthosianin red, blue, violet and usually was gotten to the flower, the fruit and vegetables.
The colour of the pigment was influenced by the concentration of the pigment, and pH. Pada the watery concentration anthosianin was blue, conversely in the thick concentration was red and the normal concentration was purple.
In the low pH the pigment anthosianin was red and in the high pH changed became violet and afterwards became blue.

Food colouring

The determination of the quality of the foodstuff generally really depends on several factors among them the taste, the colour of the texture and the nutritive value.
But before these factors was considered in a fisual manner the colour factor appeared beforehand and occasionally was critical.
Apart from as the factor that was decisive the quality, the colour could be also used as the indicator of the freshness or the maturity.
The colour also could show whether some mixing or the processing has been carried out with good or not yet.
FDA defined additional dye as dye, the pigment or the other material that was made by means of synthetic or chemical or the natural material from the crop, the animal or the other source that was extracted, was isolationed, that when being added or used to the foodstuff, medicine or cosmetics, could become part of the colour of this material.
Five because that could cause a material to be coloured that is:
1.Pigmen that naturally was met to the animal and the crop.
2.Reaction caramelisasion that produced the colour of chocolate.
3.Reaction Maillard that could produce the unclear colour.
4.Reaction oxidation.
5.addition the good pigment the natural pigment (the pigment) and synthetic.
In the processing of modern food, colouring matters were often added with the aim of improving the colour from the foodstuff or to reinforce the original colour from this foodstuff material.
In this Chapter discussions were about the pigment restricted only for the natural pigment (the pigment) and the synthetic pigment that including the group of the food additive.