Saturday, June 7, 2008

The preservative

The preservative had a function of extending the age kept a food and in this case with the road to hinder the growth of the microbe.
Because of that often also was acknowledged as the compound anti microbe.
Various compounds had the characteristics as anti microbe, among them sulfit and sulphur dioxide, salt nitrit and the nitrate, acid sorbat, acid propionat, acetic acid, acid benzoat. sulphur dioxide has for a long time been used in food as the preservative and using him developed by various forms like gas SO2, salt bisulfit and sulfit.
The research shown that sulphur dioxide was most effective worked in the condition for the low pH and it was estimated this as a result of by H2SO3 that in the solution was not disosiasioned.
In the situation was not disosiasioned, this acid more was easy to penetrate the wall of the microbe cell.
Apart from acting as the sulphur dioxide preservative also could prevent the occurrence browning non enzimatics (the Maillard reaction) that is by means of reacting with sugar reducsier and the compound between aldehida.
Sulphur dioxide also had the effect bleached the pigment melanoidin that was formed in the Maillard reaction so as very effective in preventing the reaction browning this.
Sulphur dioxide also often was added in flour to interrupt the association disulfida to protein and improved the quality of batter that was produced.
Sulphur dioxide and sulfit could be metabolismed became the sulphate and could be excresion in urine without the other side-effect.
Salt potasiium or sodium from nitrit and the nitrate was added in the process curing meat, also could hinder the growth of the microbe.
The compound that played a role in being nitrit and in the concentration 150-200 ppm could hinder the Clostridia growth in meat that was tinned.
Nevertheless, the use nitrit at this time was avoided because of being expected produced nitrosamin that was carcinogenic.
Acid sorbat that was acid mono carboksilat and anolog-analogous him had the double association a (a-unsaturated) had the characteristics anti microbe that was very strong.
This acid is usually used in the form of salt sodium and his potassium and was known effective hindered the growth of mildew and yeast in various food like cheese, products bakery, juice, the wine and the pickle.
Acid sorbat very effective pressed the growth of mildew and did not influence the food taste in the level of the increase that was permitted (until 0.3% heavy the material).
The activity of acid sorbat and very analogous his fatty acid was estimated because of the microbe could not metabolism the system dien with the double association .
Estimated acid sorbat disrupted the activity enzime dehidrogenase the fatty acid at the beginning of his activity.
Acid propionat and acetate also played a role as anti the microbe especially mildew and several bacterium.
Acid propionat usually was used in the form of salt natrium and calcium.
This compound was naturally received in cheese swiss (until 1% heavy).
Acid propionat apart from could hinder mildew also could hinder the Bacillus growth mesentericus that caused damage ropy bread.
As in the case of anti microbe other, acid propionat in the form of was not disosiasioned more potent.
Toksisitas acid propionat for mildew and some bacterium were resulted in by the inability of these microbes in metabolism 3-carbon chain.
The use of acetic acid in conservation of food already since long before, like in pickle, apart from the vinegar (4 % acetic acid).
Apart from as anti microbe, acetic acid also was contributioned towards the food taste like to mayonnaise, the pickle, tomato sauce et cetera.
The activity anti microbe acetic acid increased with decreased him the pH.
Benzoic acid was often used as anti microbe in food like juice, the soft drink et cetera.
Salt sodium from benzoic acid more often was used because was more protracted water than the form of his acid.
Benzoic acid very potent against yeast and the bacteria and most effective in hindering the growth of mildew.
Benzoic acid was often combined in a sour manner sorbat and was added in the number around 0,05-0,1% heavy the material.

The sweetener

The sweetener was the very general foodstuff component, because of that was rather strange if being put into the list of the food additive.
Because of that that including BTM was the replacement sweetener of sucrose.
The sweetener, both that was natural and synthetic, was the compound that gave the perception of the sweet feeling but did have non-nutritive sweeteners.
A compound to be able to be used as the sweetener, except for feeling sweet must fill several certain criteria, like (1) protracted and stable in the range of the wide pH, (2) stable in the range of the wide temperature, (3) had the sweet feeling and did not have side or aftertaste and (4) cheap, at least did not exceed the price of sugar sucrose.
The compound that had the sweet feeling of his structure was very heterogenous.
Nevertheless, these compounds had feature that was similar, that is having the donor system/the proton acceptor (the system of AH/B) that agreed with the receptor system (AH/B) in the sense humankind.
Saccharin, was the eldest sweetener, including the very important sweetener his role and usually was sold in the form of Na salt or Ca.
The level of the sweetness of saccharin was 300 times was sweeter than sugar.
Because of not having the value calorie, saccharin was very popular was used as the sweetener of diet food.
In the high concentration of saccharin had aftertaste bitter.
Despite results of the testing to the trial animal shown the trend that saccharin caused the carcinogenic effect but this still could not be proven by humankind.
Siklamat was the sweetener non-nutritif that was not lost popular him after saccharin.
The level of his sweetness 30 times were sweeter than sugar and did not give after taste.
Aspartam or metil the ester from L-aspartil-L-fenilalanin was the new sweetener that his use began to be bright around the 1980 's for soft drink products.
Aspartam was the sweetener that had the value calorie because aspartam was some dipeptida, but because of the level of his sweetness that was high (200 sucrose times) then only was added in the small number so as thought calorie him could be ignored.
Because was dipeptida, sapartam was easy terhidrolisis, was easy to experience the reaction of normal chemistry happened to the other food component and possibly terdegradasi by the microbe.
This matter definitely was the limitations of the use aspartam to food products was graded high water.
If experiencing hydrolysis aspartam will lose the feeling of the sweetness.

In food aspartam could experience condensation intramolukuler produced diketo piperazin.
During the 1970 's in America, Canada and England siklamat was banned by his use because of his degradation product that is sikloheksil amina was carcinogenic.
Asesulfam K. after aspartam, the synthetic sweetener that was agreed to using him in the foodstuff was asesulfam K. Asesulfam K was the compound 6-metil-1,2,3-oksatizin-4 (3H) -on-2,2-dioksida or was acid asetoasetat and acid sulfamat.
The level of the sweetness asesulfam was 200 times was sweeter than sucrose.
The testing of the laboratory proved that sesulfam K was not dangerous for humankind and his stability while the processing was very good.

Anti solid

Anti solid was the compound anhidrat that could tie water without becoming wet and being usually added in the foodstuff that was shaped like a powder/partikulat like table salt.
The aim of the increase in the compound anti solid was to prevent the occurrence of the agglomeration and guarded so that this material could be free flowing.
The compound anti solid usually was salts anhidrat that was fast hydrated bindingly water, or compounds that could tie water through surface adhesion without becoming wet and forming lumps.
These compounds usually are the compound that naturally have the shape of near crystalline.
The compound anti solid could be classed to (1) salt (aluminium, ammonium, calcium, potassium and sodium) from the long chain fatty acid (miristat, palmitat, stearat); (2) phosphate calcium; (3) potassium and sodium ferisianida; (4) oxide magnesium and (5) salt (aluminium, magnesium, calcium and the mixture of aluminium calcium) from silicate acids.
The group's compound 1, 2, and 3 formed the hydrate, whereas 4 and 5 absorbed water.
Potassium and sodium ferosinida not many others were used because tokisitas him that was relatively high.
The number that is added usually revolved about 1% heavy the foodstuff.
The compound anti solid generally could be metabolismed or not toxic in the level of the use that was permitted.
Silicate calcium was often used to avoid the agglomeration baking powder and had the capacity to tie water 2.5 times from the weight.
Apart from tying water, silicate calcium could also tie oil and compounds non polar other.
These characteristics that made silicate calcium were often used in mixtures that contained the spice, especially that the content of his oil was high.
Calcium stearat often was used as prossesing aid in the production of hard candy.
The compound anti solid that relatively just was developed was the microcrystalline cellulose powder and often was used for the product of grater cheese in order to not form the clump