Tuesday, May 27, 2008

Magnesium surfactants

It is often stated in literature that magnesium surfactants have significantly better skin compatibility than sodium, ammonium or amine neutralized anionic surfactants. Especially in the fatty alcohol sulfates which can be considered as ether sulfates with zero EO groups. In vivo tests have also proven this effect In a flex wash test on ten volunteers, nine strong and one weak reactions were found in the case of the sodium lauryl sulfate, while just one weak reaction was found in the case of a magnesium lauryl sulfate.
The advantage of the magnesium surfactants compared with other mild surfactants is that their applicational properties are practically unchanged compared with the sodium forms. From this point of view they belong to the group of basic surfactants showing high foaming and excellent cleansing properties. In case of the ether sulfate,easy thickening with electrolytes is still possible. The solubility for oils and perfumes is much greater when magnesium surfactants, rather than sodium surfactants are used.
The preservation of formulations based on magnesium surfactants is somewhat problematic. since divalent ions such as magnesium increase the resistance of microbes. Consequently, where magnesium surfactants are used in formulations, the preservation system should be carefully checked.

Mild anionic surfactants

Compared to the basic surfactants, a much wider group of mild anionic surfactants is used in cosmetics and toiletries. The purpose of mild or secondary surfactants is to improve skin and eye compatibility of the formulation. On the other hand, mild surfactants usually show reduced foaming and cleansing compared with basic surfactants. Fortunately there are many synergisms for combinations of surfactants which are known to compensate or partially compensate for this behavior.

Other basic surfactants

Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate and alkane sulfonate are very powerful surfactants with good detergency and foaming properties. However, due to their strong defatting action, they leave a harsh and dry feel on skin and hair. For very cheap formulations, small amounts can he used to reduce the costs of raw materials. Their main use is in dish-washing liquids and all purpose cleaners.

Basic surfactants

The purpose of a shampoo or shower bath is to clean the skin and hair. Customers also expect a dense and luxurious lather, although this effect is not essential for the cleansing. To fulfil these requirements, the so—called basic or primary surfactants. which are the backbone of the cleansing products, are necessary.

Raw materials

A wide range of chemical and natural materials is used in the formulation of cosmetic and toiletry preparations. It is outside the scope of this book to give a complete overview, therefore only those materials of primary importance will be stressed. This chapter deals with the basic raw materials for the production of hair-, skin- and oral-care products. It does not include special additives such as herbal extracts, nor raw materials, such as pigments, for decorative cosmetics. An overview of herbal extracts is given by Nowak.

The materials described are Iisted by application rather than by chemical classification, which is difficult to follow. This means that some products are described twice. for example the alkyl sulfates as basic surfactants and as oil-in-water emulsifiers, but makes it easier to provide an overview of a specific field and, allows the direct comparison of possible ingredients. For each material, the chemical pathway of production and special precautions regarding stability and compatibility with other ingredients are also described.

ASEAN Harmonized Cosmetics Regulatory Scheme

ASEAN Harmonized Cosmetics Regulatory Scheme in a cosmetics field in Cambodia on 2 September 2003, consists of :

  1. Schedule A : Mutual Recognition Arrangement
  2. Schedule B : ASEAN Cosmetic Directive begin was be validated on 1 January 2008.

Change of paradigm :

  • Registration become notification
  • Cosmetic surveillance system focus that revolve in a market become Marketing Pasca Surveillance and Cosmetic Safety Evaluation.

Cosmetics category base of ASEAN Cosmetic Directive

Cosmetics category base of ASEAN Cosmetic Directive :

1. Creams, emulsions, lotions, gels and oils for the skin.

2. Face masks

3. Tinted bases

4. Make-up powders

5. Toilet soaps, deodorant soaps, etc

6. Perfumes, eau de cologne

7. Bath or shower preparations

8. Depilatories

9. Deodorants and anti-perspirants

10. Hair care products :

· Hair tints

· Products for waving, straightening and fixing

· Setting products

· Cleansing products

· Conditioning

· Hairdressing

11. Shaving products

12. Make-up products

13. Lips products

14. Teeth and mouth products

15. Nail care products

16. External intimate hygiene products

17. Sunbathing products

18. Tanning without sun products

19. Skin-whitening products

20. Anti wrinkle products.